February 6, 2008

Vegan Nutrition

Vegan nutrition & food nutrient sources

Essential vegan foods: Water, fruits, vegetables, nuts (almonds cashews, hazelnuts, walnuts, etc), beans (black, pinto, baked, kidney, etc), seeds (flax, sunflower, pumpkin, sesame, hemp, etc), soy products (tofu, TVP, tempeh, fortified soy milk, miso, etc.) pulses, whole grains, quinoa, seiten, nutritional yeast, cereals, chickpea, seaweed, lentils, & vegetable, hemp, and flaxseed oils. Dairy & meat substitutes are optional but sometimes good to include.

Top vegan nutrient myths.
A lot of these can be found in fortified cereals, plant milks, and vegan meals (like tofu, meat substitutes, etc) as well:
(In parenthesis is the average amount needed per day)

Fiber (25-40g) Beans, nuts, ground flax seeds, lentils, vegetables (such as artichoke, peas, broccoli, carrots, potatoes, sweet potatoes, onions, green beans, cauliflower, zucchini, celery, sun dried tomatoes), whole-wheat spaghetti, oats, fruits (avocado, prunes, plums, berries), whole grains, sesame seeds, bran, quinoa, chickpeas, high fiber cereals, fiber plus plant milks, popcorn.

Iodine (120-150mcg) Table salt, kelp, strawberries, dried fruit, canned vegetables, pears, soy products, potato with peel baked, wheat germ, seaweed, navy beans. Foods that contain carrageen, agar-agar, algin, or alginate.

Essential Fatty Acids:
Omega-3 fatty acids (1.1mg) Ground flax seeds, oils (flaxseed oil, linseed oil, canola oil, walnut oil, wheat germ oil and soybean oil), walnuts, algae, hempseed, hemp milk, fortified soymilk, spirulina, chia, perilla, lingonberry, purslane, camelina, pecan nuts, hazel nuts, persian walnuts, black raspberry, butternuts, green leafy vegetables (like lettuce, broccoli, kale, spinach and purslane), legumes (like mungo, kidney, navy, pinto, lima beans, peas and split peas), citrus fruits, melons, cherries, & tofu.
Omega-3 fatty acids loose it's nutrients when cooked.
Omega-6 fatty acids (1.1mg) Nuts, cereals, whole grains, vegetable and seed oils (sunflower, safflower, corn, cottonseed, soybean), black currant, borage, hempseed, hemp milk, fortified soymilk, & spirulina.
Omega-9 fatty acids (1.1mg) Vegetable/olive oil, rapeseed, wallflower seed, hempseed, hemp milk, fortified soymilk, spirulina, & mustard seed.

Calcium: (700-1500mg) Tofu, green leafy vegetables (spinach, kale, collard greens, cabbage, etc.), watercress, dried fruit/figs, seeds and nuts (almonds, brazil nuts, sunflower, pumpkin, sesame), black molasses, chickpeas, parsley, wholemeal bread, oats, almond butter, cooked tempeh, broccoli, beans (baked, black, pinto, navy, kidney, soy), kale, TVP, mustard greens, soya flour, soy yogurt, turnip greens, tahini, okra, bok choy, soy milk. Plant milks, bread, cereal, & orange juice are often fortified with calcium. Hummus with pita bread also provides a great source.

Proteins: (50g-55) Complete proteins for vegans include spirulina, quinoa, buckwheat, hempseed, and amaranth, & soy products such as soybeans, edamame, tofu, tempeh, and miso. Other great sources of protien include lentils, seitan (wheat gluten), TVP, kamut, nuts & seeds (almond, cashew, walnuts, cashews, brazil nuts, hazelnuts, pistachios, macadamia nuts, pecans, filberts, peanuts nuts, sesame, sunflower, flax, hemp, pumpkin seeds), beans, (black, lima, pinto, kidney, navy, baked, split peas, chickpeas, fava, mung, pink), grains (barley, cornmeal, brown rice, millet, oatmeal, rye, bulgur, whole wheat bread, wheat germ, wheat, wild rice, spelt, teff, triticale, whole wheat berries, whole wheat couscous), vegtables (raw seaweed, raw spirulina, artichokes, beets, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, cucumbers, eggplant, green peas, green pepper, kale, lettuce, mushrooms, mustard green, onions, potatoes, spinach, tomatoes, turnip greens, watercress, yams, zucchini, potato), fruits (apple, banana, cantaloupe, grape, grapefruit, honeydew melon, orange, papaya, peach, pear, pineapple, strawberry, tangerine, watermelon), nutritional yeast, soy milks and other plant milks, pulses, meat substitutes (such as Boca, Gardenburger, Tofurkey, Lightlife, Morningstar, Yves, etc).

Magnesium: (320-420m) Nuts, cocoa, whole wheat bread, bran flakes, wheat germ, barley, brown rice, leafy green vegetables, cooked dried beans, soy products, seeds (pumpkin, iotus, squash seed kernels, flax, sunflower, sesame), quinoa, almond butter, nuts (almonds, cashews, pine, brazil, black walnuts), beans, oats, seaweed, cereals, & plant milks. Refined grains are a poor source of magnesium.

Potassium: (4700mg) Legumes, orange juice, potato with skin, avocado, banana, tomato, broccoli, soybean, apricots, dried fruit, artichoke, spinach, squash, sweet potato, asparagus, green bean, cauliflower, celery, collard greens, tomaine lettuce, crimini mushrooms, almond, cantaloupe, swiss chard, corn, mushroom, plantain, lentil, plant milks, some pre-made store bought [vegan] meals.

Sulfur: (15mg) Legumes, garlic, onions, wheat germ, nuts, seeds, broccoli, asparagus, coconut, watermelon, swiss chard, parsley, turmeric, spinach, sweet potatoes, tomatoes , tea & coffee, cabbage, raspberries.

Iron: (2.8mg) Spinach, potato, beans (black, lentils, pinto, soy), quinoa, tempeh, peas, nuts (cashews, almonds), watermelon, meat substitutes, broccoli, seaweeds, dried apricots, wholemeal bread, raisins, prunes, dates, seeds (sesame, sunflower, pumpkin), chickpeas, black-eyed peas, legumes, oatmeal, dark-green leafy vegetables, cabbage, tofu, pulses, wheat-germ, parsley, millet, blackstrap molasses, tomato juice, soy milk, teff, whole wheat bread, cream of wheat.

Zinc: (15-19mg) Dried seaweed, seeds (pumpkin, sesame, sunflower), nuts (pine, raw cashews, raw almonds, raw pecans) whole grains, wholemeal bread, brown rice, beans (lentils, chickpeas, lima, split peas) soybeans, tempeh, tvp, tofu, wheat germ & oats.

Vitamins: (Keep most of these foods stored away from light to protect vitamin content)
Vitamin A Cereals, plant milks, meat substitutes, dark green and yellow vegetables (broccoli, kale, collard greens, peas, spinach, cilantro, turnip greens, carrots, squash, sweet potatoes, maize, pumpkin, yellow fruits (cantaloupe, papaya, mango, apricots), barley, wheat, pasta, rice, quinoa, flaxseed oil, algae, & nuts.

Vitamin C (90 -2000mg) Kakadu plum, camu camu, rose hip, blackcurrant, brussels sprouts, citrus fruits, green vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, peas, avocado, berries (straw, cran, blue, rasp, etc), currants, lettuce, red, green & yellow peppers, potatoes, tomatoes, cilantro, sprouted alfalfa seeds, parsley, melons, cranberry juice, orange juice/orange , grapefruit juice/grapefruit, sweet red pepper, potato, collard greens, cauliflower, lemon, cabbage, tropical fruits: guavas, mangoes, kiwi fruit, & pineapple.

Vitamin D: (10 mcg) Sunlight, vegetable oils & margarines, some fortifed plant milks (such as soy, rice, & hemp), spirulina, fortified cereals & breads. Mushrooms also provide over 2700 IU per serving (approx. 3 oz or 1/2 cup) of vitamin D2, if exposed to just 5 minutes of UV light after being harvested.

Vitamin E (15 mg) Wheat germ, margarine, vegetable oils (soybean, corn, safflower, and cottonseed), avocado, sweet potatoes, yams, green leafy vegetables, sunflower seeds, broccoli, spinach, kiwi, turnip greens, whole grain, mango, nuts (peanuts, almonds, pistachio), & peanut butter.

Vitamin K 120 mcg) Dark leafy green vegetables (spinach, kale, lettuce, cabbage), cauliflower, wheat bran, cereals, some fruits, beets, potatoes, seeds, & green tea. Vitamin K is also produced by bacteria in stomach.

Complex B vitamins:
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Wholegrain cereals, whole grain bread, fortified cereals, porridge oats, nuts, brown rice, yeast extract, soybeans, peas, legumes, pulses, beans, nuts, Vegemite, Marmite, & seeds (sunflower).
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Almonds, whole grains, wild rice, soybeans, whole grain bread, beans, cereals, leafy greens (spinach), wheat germ, oranges, mushrooms, cereal, broccoli, turnip greens, asparagus, avocados, Vegemite, Marmite, yeast extract, & enriched food products.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Whole grains, dried beans, brewer's yeast, peanut butter, beans, nuts (peanuts), wholegrain bread, wheat germ, cereal, yeast extract, avocados, mushrooms, asparagus, broccoli, brussel sprouts, corn, seeds (sunflower), Vegemite, Marmite, & peas.
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) Peanut butter, yeast extract, brewer's yeast, wheat bran, wheat germ, nuts (peanuts, cashews, hazelnuts), molasses, avocados, sunflower seeds, oats, barley, & green vegetables.
Vitamin B6 (Pyroxidine) Potato, banana, whole grains, nuts, legumes, oatmeal, wheat bran, baked potatoes, chickpeas, fortified cereals, oats, peanuts, soy, wholegrain bread, wheat germ, avocados, & beans.
Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Whole grains, fruit, vegetables, & soybeans.
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) Leafy green vegetables (broccoli, asparagus, peas, brussel sprouts, spinach), mushrooms, fortified cereals and grain products/juices/plant milks, nuts (almonds, peanuts), dry beans (black-eyed beans, soybeans), & wheat germ.
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) ( .70- 2.4 mcg) Chlorella, fortified cereals, fortified soy/rice milks, meat substitutes/soy analogs, some brands of fortified brewer's & nutritional yeast (such as Red Star & Twinlab). Sea vegetables like seaweed, dried nori, & spirulina, may contain vitamin B12, but their content varies and may be unreliable, lactic acid fermented products such as like tempeh, msio, beer & sauerkraut, but their content as well varies and may be unreliable. Marmite, & So Delicious Dairy Free Yogurt also contains B12 (Cyanocobalamin).

Source links:
Vegan food pyramid
Optimal vegan nutrition
Vegan nutrition from Vegsoc.org
Vegan nutrition from Wikipedia.org
Staying a Healthy Vegan
Healthy choices on a vegan diet
Vitamins and Minerals Information Sheet
Vitamins chart 1
Vitamins chart 2

Information links:
Vegan Foods
What do vegans eat?
How to Stock Your Pantry
VegCooking Shopping Guide
TryVeg Shopping Guide
VeganOutreach:Vegan Foods
Vegan substitutions
Vegan alternatives
I Can't Believe It's Vegan! (not everything is vegan)

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